Science and Culture of Australia
According to Andyeducation, Australia has a well-established educational system with a high school, secondary and tertiary enrollment by world standards. Schooling is compulsory for children 6-15 (in Tasmania up to 16) years old. School education is divided into schools of the first (depending on the state – 1-6th or 1-7th grades) and the second stage (7-12th or 8-12th grades). In secondary schools, St. 72% of children of the appropriate age. 6961 schools are public, 2634 are private, mostly Catholic. More than 50% of secondary school graduates continue their studies. The system of vocational education is very branched, mainly state-owned, consisting of more than 250 institutions. More than 1.7 million people undergo vocational training annually. (13% of the working population). For higher education, in addition to universities, there are special educational institutions (there are 92 in total) – educational centers, technical and special colleges. Of the 42 universities, 38 are state-funded to some extent. There is only one completely private university, as well as a number of other private institutions (such as theological colleges) providing higher education. The higher education system combines fees with government support in the form of scholarships or student loans. Much attention is paid to attracting foreign students. Australian educational services of all kinds in 2002 received approx. 280 thousand students from more than 80 countries, incl. OK. 150 thousand – in Australia itself. Among the service industries, education is in 3rd place in terms of export earnings (5 billion Australian dollars per year).
The system of fundamental scientific research is quite developed, in which the state plays the most important organizational and financial role. Through the Australian Research Council and various centers and programs, the government funds research on a wide range of issues, placing great importance on spreading an innovative culture in the country. Australian scientists and engineers have a lot of achievements in the field of science and technology, both original and developing what has already been done in other states. The main scientific centers are universities and special scientific organizations. Among them, the largest is the Federal Organization for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIRO), in which a significant part of the scientific research conducted in the country is concentrated on a wide range of problems – from animal and plant diseases to radiophysics, but especially research that is relevant to Australia in terms of the specifics of its natural and climatic conditions and the structure of the economy. It is one of the largest and most diversified organizations in the world in terms of the range of scientific research, with approx. 6500 employees in 60 research centers and laboratories in Australia and abroad. It is one of the five most successful scientific organizations in the world in terms of achievements in the field of ecology and agricultural sciences. It implements its achievements in practice through 70 implementation companies, simultaneously leads approx. 700 international research programs. CSIRO has an annual budget of AUD 1.5 billion. Doll. consists of 1/3 of federal appropriations and 2/3 of their own income, 1/3 of which, in turn, is earned abroad. The Australian Organization for Nuclear Science and Technology is also a world-class research centre. State allocations for science are constantly increasing, but in relation to GDP (0.7%) are still inferior to many developed countries.
The cultural life of the country is rich and varied. Literature, painting, musical art, and museum work are developing. The Australian Ballet and the Sydney Dance Company, the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra are quite famous in the world. Among Australian film actors, Nicole Kidman and Mel Gibson are the most popular, among pop stars – singer Kylie Minogue. A huge role in promoting the image of Australia belongs to Paul Hogan, who played the main role in the movie Crocodile Dundee. Among the famous Australians are the poet and writer Henry Lawson, who was at the origins of the formation of the artistic image of the Australian and Australia, the writers Patrick White (Nobel Prize winner), Maurice West, Vance Palmer, Katharina Prichard, artists Russell Drysdel, Sydney Nolan, historian Manning Clark and many other.
Among the architectural achievements that are the hallmark of Australia are the famous Harbor Bridge (across Sydney Bay), the building of the Sydney Opera House, the Arts Center in Melbourne. Quite a few monuments of colonial architecture have been preserved. The combination of cuisines of different nations has made the country’s restaurant business one of its most important attractions. Australian wines have also gained steady popularity in the world market. Australians are generally characterized by the desire and ability to relax. Favorable climate, traditions transferred by settlers from the British Isles determined the popularity of sports – rugby, tennis, cricket, where the Australians have always had outstanding players, and the national team occupies a leading position in the world. Australian swimmers regularly achieve outstanding success on the world stage. Equestrian sports, yacht racing, golf, windsurfing, football, baseball, athletics, etc. are also popular. Australia has hosted the Olympic Games twice: in 1956 in Melbourne and in 2000 in Sydney.
Other active forms of recreation, primarily tourism, are becoming more and more popular. The country has created approx. 2 thousand national parks and reserves, there are huge opportunities for “wild” hiking and travel. The resort Mecca of Australia – the Gold Coast – stretches for hundreds of kilometers of the beaches of the east coast of Queensland.
The popularity of Aboriginal culture is growing. Their songs and legends are especially famous. The traditional art of the natives, which has come down to our days, is rock paintings and drawings on the bark of eucalyptus trees, paintings on stone of mythological themes. The originality of painting by Aboriginal artists made their work very popular in modern Australia. The influence of aboriginal languages is strongly felt in toponymy, the name of animals, in the special terms of the Australian version of the English language.